Glossary

Arrival Card A legal document used by immigration authorities to provide passenger identification and a record of a person’s entry into certain countries.

Additional declaration A statement that is required by an importing country to be entered on a phytosanitary certificate and which provides specific additional information pertinent to the phytosanitary condition of a consignment
Area An officially defined country, part of a country or all or parts of several countries [revised, 1995]
Area endangered See Endangered area
Bulbs and tubers Dormant underground organs of plants intended for planting
Certificate An official document which attests to the phytosanitary status of any consignment affected by phytosanitary regulations
Clearance (of a consignment) Verification of compliance with phytosanitary regulations [new, 1995]
Commodity A type of plant, plant product, or other regulated article being moved for trade or other purpose
Commodity class A category of similar commodities that can be considered together in phytosanitary regulations
Consignment A quantity of plants, plant products and/or other regulated articles being moved from one country to another and covered by a single phytosanitary certificate (a consignment may be composed of one or more lots)
Containment The application of phytosanitary measures in and around an infested area to prevent spread of a pest [new, 1995]
Control (of a pest) Suppression, containment or eradication of a pest population [new, 1995]
Country of origin* Country where a consignment of plants was grown
Country of re-export* Country through which a consignment of plants passed and was split up, stored or had its packaging changed
Country of transit* Country through which a consignment of plants passed without being split up, stored or having its packaging changed, without being exposed to contamination by pests in that country
Cut flowers and branches Fresh parts of plants intended for decorative use and not for planting
Debarking Removal of bark from round wood (debarking does not necessarily make the wood bark-free)
Delimiting survey Survey conducted to establish the boundaries of an area considered to be infested by or free from a pest
Detection survey Survey conducted in an area to determine if pests are present [revised, 1995]
Detention Keeping a consignment in official custody or confinement for phytosanitary reasons [revised, 1995]
Dunnage Wood used to wedge or support cargo
Endangered area An area where ecological factors favour the establishment of a pest whose presence in the area will result in economically important loss [new, 1995]
Entry (of a consignment) Movement through a point of entry into an area [new, 1995]
Entry (of a pest) Movement of a pest into an area where it is not yet present, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled [new, 1995]
Equivalence The situation of phytosanitary measures which are not identical but have the same effect [new, 1995]
Eradication Application of phytosanitary measures to eliminate a pest from an area [revised, 1995; formerly Eradicate]

Establishment Perpetuation, for the foreseeable future, of a pest within an area after entry [revised, 1995; formerly Established]
Field Plot of land with defined boundaries within a place of production on which a commodity is grown
Field inspection Inspection of plants in a field during the growing season
Find free To inspect a consignment, field or place of production and consider it to be free from a specific pest
Free from Of a consignment, field or place of production, without pests (or a specific pest) in numbers or quantities that can be detected by the application of phytosanitary procedures [revised, 1995]
Fresh Living; not dried, deep-frozen or otherwise conserved
Fruits and vegetables Fresh parts of plants intended for consumption or processing
Fumigation Treatment with a chemical agent that reaches the commodity wholly or primarily in a gaseous state [revised, 1995]
Germplasm Plants intended for use in breeding or conservation programmes
Grain Seeds intended for processing or consumption and not for planting (see Seeds)
Growing medium Any material in which plant roots are growing or intended for that purpose
Growing season Period of the year when plants will actively grow in an area
Growing season inspection See Field inspection
Harmonization The establishment, recognition and application by different countries of phytosanitary measures based on common standards [new, 1995; definition based on the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures]
Host range Species of plants capable, under natural conditions, of sustaining a specific pest
Immediate vicinity Fields adjacent to a field, or places of production adjacent to a place of production
Import permit Official document authorizing importation of a commodity in accordance with specified phytosanitary requirements [revised, 1995]
Inspection Official visual examination of plants, plant products or other regulated articles to determine if pests are present and/or to determine compliance with phytosanitary regulations [revised, 1995; formerly Inspect]
Inspector Person authorized by a National Plant Protection Organization to discharge its functions
Interception(of a consignment) The refusal or controlled entry of an imported consignment due to failure to comply with phytosanitary regulations [revised, 1995]
Interception (of a pest) The detection of a pest during inspection of an imported consignment
Introduction Entry of a pest resulting in its establishment [revised, 1995]
IPPC Abbreviation for the International Plant Protection Convention, as deposited in 1951 with FAO in Rome and as subsequently amended
Lot A number of units of a single commodity, identifiable by its homogeneity of composition, origin, etc., forming part of a consignment
Monitoring survey Ongoing survey to verify the characteristics of a pest population [new, 1995]
National Plant Protection Organization Official service established by a government to discharge the functions specified by the IPPC [formerly Plant Protection Organization (National)]
Non-quarantine pest Pest that is not a quarantine pest for an area [new, 1995]
NPPO Abbreviation for National Plant Protection Organization
Occurrence The presence in an area of a pest officially reported to be indigenous or introduced and/or not officially reported to have been eradicated [revised, 1995; formerly Occur]
Official Established, authorized or performed by a National Plant Protection Organization
Outbreak An isolated pest population, recently detected and expected to survive for the immediate future [new, 1995]
Pathway Any means that allows the entry or spread of a pest [revised, 1995]
Pest Any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent, injurious to plants or plant products [revised, 1995; definition subject to formal amendment of IPPC]
Pest free area An area in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained [new, 1995]
Pest risk analysis Pest risk assessment and pest risk management [new, 1995]
Pest risk assessment Determination of whether a pest is a quarantine pest and evaluation of its introduction potential [new, 1995]
Pest risk management The decision-making process of reducing the risk of introduction of a quarantine pest [new, 1995]
PFA Abbreviation for pest free area [new, 1995]
Phytosanitary Pertaining to plant quarantine
Phytosanitary certificate Certificate patterned after the model certificates of the IPPC
Phytosanitary certification Use of phytosanitary procedures leading to the issue of a phytosanitary certificate
Phytosanitary legislation Basic laws granting legal authority to a National Plant Protection Organization from which phytosanitary regulations may be drafted [revised, 1995]
Phytosanitary measure Any legislation, regulation or official procedure having the purpose to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests [new, 1995]
Phytosanitary procedure Any officially prescribed method for performing inspections, tests, surveys or treatments in connection with plant quarantine [formerly Quarantine procedure]
Phytosanitary regulation Official rule to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests, by regulating the production, movement or existence of commodities or other articles, or the normal activity of persons, and by establishing schemes for phytosanitary certification [revised, 1995]
Place of production Any premises or collection of fields operated as a single production or fanning unit
Plant pest See Pest
Plant product Unmanufactured material of plant origin (including grain) and those manufactured products that, by their nature or that of their processing, may create a risk for the spread of pests
Plant protection organization See National Plant Protection Organization and Regional Plant Protection Organization
Plant quarantine All activities designed to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests or to ensure their official control [revised, 1995]
Planting(including replanting) Any operations for the placing of plants in a growing medium to ensure their subsequent growth, reproduction or propagation
Plants Living plants and parts thereof, including seeds
Plants for planting Plants intended to remain planted, to be planted or replanted
Plants in tissue culture Plants in a clear aseptic medium in a closed transparent container
Point of entry Airport, seaport or land border point officially designated for the importation of consignments, and/or entrance of passengers [new, 1995]
Post-entry quarantine Quarantine applied to a consignment after entry [new, 1995]
PRA Abbreviation for pest risk analysis [new, 1995]
PRA area Area in relation to which a pest risk analysis is conducted [new, 1995]
Practically free Of a consignment, field or place of production, without pests (or a specific pest) in numbers or quantities in excess of those that can be expected to result from, and be consistent with, good culturing and handling practices employed in the production and marketing of the commodity [revised, 1995]
Preclearance Phytosanitary certification and/or clearance in the country of origin, performed by or under the regular supervision of the National Plant Protection Organization of the country of destination [revised, 1995]
Prohibition A phytosanitary regulation forbidding the importation or movement of specified pests or commodities [revised, 1995]
Propagative material See Plants for planting
Quarantine Official confinement of plants or plant products subject to phytosanitary regulations for observation and research or for farther inspection, testing and/or treatment [revised, 1995]
Quarantine area An area within which a quarantine pest is present and is being officially controlled [revised, 1995]
Quarantine pest A pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled [revised, 1995; definition subject to formal amendment of IPPC]
Quarantine procedure See Phytosanitary procedure
Quarantine station Official station for holding plants or plant products in quarantine [revised, 1995; formerly Quarantine station or facility]
Refusal Forbidding entry of a consignment or other regulated article when it fails to comply with phytosanitary regulations [revised, 1995]
Region The combined territories of the member countries of a Regional Plant Protection Organization
Regional Plant Protection Organization Intergovernmental organization with the functions laid down by Article VIII of the IPPC [formerly Plant Protection Organization (Regional)]
Regulated article Any storage place, conveyance, container or any other object or material capable of harbouring or spreading pests, particularly where international transportation is involved [revised, 1995]
Release (of a consignment) Authorization for entry after clearance [new, 1995]
Replanting See Planting
Round wood Wood not sawn longitudinally, carrying its natural rounded surface, with or without bark
RPPO Abbreviation for Regional Plant Protection Organization
Sawn wood Wood sawn longitudinally, with or without its natural rounded surface, with or without bark
Seeds Seeds for planting, not for consumption or processing (see Grain)
Spread Expansion of the geographical distribution of a pest within an area [new, 1995]
Standard Document, established by consensus and approved by a recognized body, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context [new, 1995; ISO/IEC GUIDE 2: 1991 definition]
Stored product Unmanufactured plant product intended for consumption or processing, stored in a dried form (this includes in particular grain and dried fruits and vegetables)
Suppression The application of phytosanitary measures in an infested area to reduce pest populations and thereby limit spread [new, 1995]
Survey Methodical procedure to determine the characteristics of a pest population or to determine which species occur in an area
Test Official examination, other than visual, to determine if pests are present or to identify pests
Tissue culture See Plants in tissue culture
Transit See Country of transit
Transparency The principle of making available, at the international level, phytosanitary measures and their rationale [new, 1995]
Treatment Officially authorized procedure for the killing, removal or rendering infertile of pests [revised, 1995]
Wood Round wood, sawn wood, wood chips or dunnage, with or without bark